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精品推荐:乾隆通宝

2022-04-16 18:42:57

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【藏品名称】:乾隆通宝

[Collection name]: Qianlong Tongbao

【藏品类别】:钱币

[Collection category]: Coins

【藏品数量】:四枚

[Collection Quantity]: Four pieces

【藏品简介】:乾隆通宝是乾隆时期的流通货币,该钱币铸于清高宗乾隆年间(1736-1795年),背面的满文比较复杂,上面有详细的价格和钱币拓片。乾隆通宝钱径约25毫米,重约3g。钱面文字“乾隆通宝”以楷书书写,钱背文字沿雍正满文钱式,穿孔左边有“宝”字,穿孔右边铸有各局名。不同时期币种的形状与大小也有不同。

[Collection Introduction]:Qianlong Tongbao is the circulating currency of the Qianlong period. The coin was cast during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty (1736-1795). The Manchu text on the back is more complex, with detailed prices and coin rubbings on it.Qianlong Tongbao money diameter is about 25 mm and weighs about 3g.Qian Mian text "Qianlong Tongbao" is written in regular script, Qian back text along the Yongzheng Manchu Qian style, the left side of the perforation has the word "Bao", the right side of the perforation cast has the name of each bureau.The shape and size of currencies also vary in different periods.

【历史沿革】:雍正十三年(1735年),清高宗即位,改元乾隆。铸行“乾隆通宝”,要求仍重一钱二分,该钱书法铸工都比雍正时更为精美。最初清政府仍继续执行通货紧缩的政策。钱局较雍正时有所增减,首先在乾隆四年,停了宝河、宝巩、宝济三局,于乾隆五年时开宝福局,七年开宝桂局,十年开宝直局。乾隆朝以前的制钱不加锡,以铜、铅、锌配制,称之为“黄钱”,在乾隆五年规定在铸钱铜料之中加百分之二的锡,称为“青钱”。官方说是为杜绝私钱,实则无异于减重。“乾隆四十年时,私铸情况日盛,各省官员出现盗铸,政府对此无计可施,加上云南铜产量逐年递减,导致铜价飞涨,铸钱成本也随之水涨船高。清政府继而又采取了通货紧缩政策,先后停铸了宝直、大理、广西、临安等局,同时鼓励商人从海外进口铜材。但是这些措施未能从根本上解决问题,私铸虽有所减少,但官钱不见增加,民间交易缺钱,就出现了使用古钱的现象。到了乾隆五十年后,又相继开了宝直等局,同时放宽了铸钱的标准,所以导致乾隆后期制钱的质量参差不齐,大不如初的情况。此外在乾隆朝时期在新疆出了“乾隆通宝”红钱(也做普尔钱,“普尔”维语即钱的意思),是以新疆产铜为原料,在新疆地区铸行的,此后各朝均有铸行。

[Historical evolution]: In the thirteenth year of Yongzheng (1735), Emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty ascended the throne and changed to Yuan Qianlong.Casting "Qianlong Tongbao", the requirement is still heavy a money two points, the money calligraphy casting workers are more exquisite than the Yongzheng time.Initially, the Qing government continued to implement the deflation policy.Compared with the Yongzheng money bureau, first of all in the Qianlong four years, stopped baohe, Baogong, Baoji three bureau, in the Qianlong five years open Baofu bureau, seven years open baogui bureau, ten years open treasure direct bureau.Before the Qianlong Dynasty, the money was made without tin, made with copper, lead and zinc, called "yellow money". In the fifth year of Qianlong, two percent of tin was added to the copper material, which was called "green money".Officials say to eliminate private money, in fact, is to reduce weight."In the 40th year of Emperor Qianlong, private casting was booming, and provincial officials stole casting. The government had no choice but to do this. In addition, the copper production in Yunnan decreased year by year, leading to the soaring copper price and the cost of casting money.The Qing government then adopted the deflation policy, successively stopped casting Baozhen, Dali, Guangxi, and Lin'an and other bureaus, and encouraging merchants to import copper from overseas.However, these measures failed to fundamentally solve the problem. Although the private casting was reduced, the official money did not increase, and the private transactions were short of money, so the phenomenon of the use of ancient money appeared.Fifty years after Qianlong, he opened baozhi and other bureaus, and relaxed the standard of casting money at the same time, so the quality of the money made in the late Qianlong was uneven, not unlike the previous situation.In addition, during the Qianlong Dynasty, the red money of "Qianlong Tongbao" (also for Poer qian, "Poer" means money) was issued in Xinjiang, which was made from copper produced in Xinjiang and cast in Xinjiang, and then in all dynasties.

 

【文物特征】:乾隆通宝乾隆通宝铸于清高宗乾隆年间(1736年-1795年),背面的满文比较复杂,可以参考华光普的《中国古钱币目录》,上面有很详细的价格和钱币拓片。历史年代为,清高宗乾隆年间。绝大部分为小平钱,新疆红钱有部分当十钱,宝泉、宝巩发现有大钱,但应为开炉或后铸花钱,非行用品。

乾隆通宝,字从上而下而右而左直读,钱背文字沿雍正满文钱式穿孔左边有"宝"字,穿孔右边铸有各局名。乾隆通宝”版式很多,钱文方面京局的多用宋体,宝浙局多用楷书,宝陕、宝川两局用隶书,但大多数地方钱局用宋体。新疆红钱部分局背满文,其他则背维文和满文。少数钱背有星、汉字,又有记年,记值,合背,吉语等钱。乾隆常见的共有二十二个铸局,新疆红钱有六个铸局。

【文物价值】:清高宗乾隆皇帝于公元1735年即位,在位的60年里施展其“文治武功”的治国策略,创造了封建社会里最后一个辉煌盛世,之后民间便盛传佩带“乾隆通宝”铜钱可驱灾辟邪,又因乾隆二字谐音“钱隆”而备受后世藏家所喜爱。

乾隆通宝”当时发行时间较长,铸量极大且加之流传至今时间较短,所以多数价值低廉。但乾隆的雕母和母钱因流传数量极少,现在以是收藏家们青睐的对象,具有很高的收藏价值,和一定的金银价值。

[Cultural relics value]: the emperor qianlong in 1735 AD, 60 years of its "martial arts" governance strategy, created the feudal society, after folk with "qianlong treasure" copper money can exorcise evil spirits, and because of qianlong word homophonic "money" and loved by later collectors.

Qianlong Tongbao " at that time issued a long time, cast and spread time is short, so most of the value is low.However, Qianlong's carved mother and mother money are very small, and now it is the favored object of collectors, with high collection value, and a certain gold and silver value.

[Cultural relics value]: the emperor qianlong in 1735 AD, 60 years of its "martial arts" governance strategy, created the feudal society, after folk with "qianlong treasure" copper money can exorcise evil spirits, and because of qianlong word homophonic "money" and loved by later collectors.

Qianlong Tongbao " at that time issued a long time, cast and spread time is short, so most of the value is low.However, Qianlong's carved mother and mother money are very small, and now it is the favored object of collectors, with high collection value, and a certain gold and silver value.

【钱币种类】

[Type of Coin]

【雕母】

[Condor mother]

藏品特征:这是一枚铜质钱币,钱币是内方外圆形。钱币的外圆直径是2.8厘米,厚度0.18厘米。在钱币的正面刻

有“乾隆通宝”四个楷书字,钱币的背面有满文“宝泉”两个字。 相关背景资料:雕母又叫母钱,经审核通过后,作为铸造母钱之用。

我国自宋以来就采用翻砂法铸钱,每当出新钱,就用铜块或锡、铅块直接雕刻成钱模也就是雕母或母钱,铸钱时用祖钱作模,翻铸母钱。雕母钱文精美,字口深峻,每个字的笔画都非常清晰,绝无粘连模糊

,而且笔画比同版本的流通钱要细瘦,从细部看还保有手工镂刻的痕迹。清代钱币数量之多、版别之复杂,远远超过了以前的各个朝代。清代的雕母钱,我们常见有“乾隆通宝”“嘉庆通宝”“道光通宝”“同治通宝”等。清代钱币的特点:一个皇帝只用一种年号钱,虽然铸量大但形制比较简单;除个别例外,所有的年号钱均称通宝。普遍做法是把皇帝的名号以汉文铸在正面,而将各个钱币铸局的字名以满文铸在钱币的背面。雕母钱是不参与流通的,存世量很少,因此很具有收藏价值。

雕母,就是钱局工匠按照朝廷规定的形式,用精铜手工雕刻而成的模本,又称“祖钱”雕母做出以后,经过朝廷的审定和批准,下一步就可以翻铸母钱。

雕母的文字细瘦高挺,字口深峻,笔画刚劲有力,全身经过细致修整,无铸造痕迹且铜色金黄。从细部看还留有手工雕刻的痕迹,雕母的特殊价值在于数量特别稀少。母钱:用雕母所翻铸出的钱叫做母钱,翻铸好的大批母钱经过工匠打磨加工后就可以再次翻铸普通流通钱了。

Collection features: This is a copper coin, rounded inside and outside.The outer circle of the coin is 2.8 cm in diameter and 0.18 cm thick.On the front side of the coin

There are "Qianlong Tongbao" four regular script characters, the back of the coin has a Manchu "Baoquan" two characters.Related background information: carving mother is also called mother money, after the examination, as the casting mother money.

Since the Song Dynasty, China has used the sand turning method to cast money, whenever the new money, with copper block or tin, lead block directly carved into the money mold, that is, carved mother or mother money, casting money with ancestral money as the mold, casting the mother money.The mother is exquisite, the mouth is deep, the strokes of each word are very clear, no adhesion fuzzy

And the strokes are thinner than the same version of the circulation of money, from the details also retain the traces of manual carving.The number of coins in the Qing Dynasty and the complexity of the editions were far more numerous than the previous dynasties.In the Qing Dynasty, we often have "Qianlong Tongbao", "Jiaqing Tongbao", "Daoguang Tongbao", "Tongzhi Tongbao" and so on.The characteristics of Qing Dynasty coins: an emperor only uses one annual money, although the casting is large but the shape is relatively simple; with some exceptions, all annual money are called Tongbao.It is common practice to cast the name of the emperor on the front in Chinese, and the names of various coin sites on the back of the coin.Carving mother money is not participate in circulation, the amount is very small, so it has very collection value.

The carving mother is the craftsman of the money bureau according to the form of hand carved with fine copper, also known as "ancestral money" carving mother, after the examination and approval of the court, the next step can be the mother money.

The text of the carving mother is thin and tall, deep and firm, strong and powerful strokes, the whole body after careful repair, no casting trace and copper gold.From the details, there are still traces of hand carving, and the special value of the carving is that the number is particularly rare.Mother money: The money made by the carved mother is called mother money. The large number of mother money can be turned into ordinary circulation money again after grinding by the craftsman.

【母钱】

[Mother money]

母钱相当于现在的钞版 母钱经过细致加工后,作为铸普通钱的母钱已很精美了,但多数能看到翻砂铸造后留下的细小沙眼等铸造痕迹。母钱的特殊价值在于作为翻铸子钱(子钱就是普通流通钱)发行量再大也比子钱少之又少。雕母,母钱与普通流通钱明显的区别是:雕母要查看是否有雕刻痕迹的存在。母钱要查看是否有经过修整加工的痕迹。而普通流通钱再精美也是铸造出来后不会加以细致修整的。

The mother money is equivalent to the current banknote. After careful processing, the mother money for casting ordinary money has been very exquisite, but most can see the small sand eyes and other casting marks left after sand casting.The special value of mother money lies in that the circulation of double casting money (son money is ordinary circulation money) is less than son money.The mother, the mother money and ordinary circulation money obvious difference is: the mother to see whether there is the existence of carving traces.Mother money to see if there are traces of finishing and processing.And ordinary circulation money again exquisite is cast out after will not be carefully repaired.

【样钱】

[Sample money]

“样钱”俗称“大样”一般均用雕母直接铸造,也叫官造原版,所以样钱的直径比常用钱大,文字清晰、深峻,大部分“样钱”是高质量的,也有个别特殊情况。样钱只是笼统的称谓,往往一枚样钱可以有多种说法和用途,质量特别好的还可以作母钱用。

“样钱”虽然比一般普通钱币较少,但是发行量还是比较大,样钱是由雕母直接铸造,普通钱币是由母钱直接铸造,也很好分辨。和同版别的对面图,请见右面。1,直径明显大于同版钱币;2,字体相对于同版普通钱币来讲更为遒劲有力;3,铜质相比更为精黄一般含铜量可以达到96%--97%。

"Sample money" commonly known as "big sample" is generally directly cast with carved mother, also called the official original, so the diameter of sample money is larger than common money, clear, deep, most of the "sample money" is high quality, there are some special cases.Sample money is just a general term, often a sample money can have a variety of statements and purposes, the quality is particularly good can also be used as the mother money.

Although the "sample money" is less than the general ordinary coins, but the circulation is still relatively large, the sample money is directly cast by the carved mother, the ordinary coins are directly cast by the mother money, it is also very easy to distinguish.For the opposite picture of the same version, please see it on the right.1. The diameter is significantly greater than the same coin; 2, the font is more powerful than the same ordinary coin; 3, the general copper content can reach 96%

 

此藏品为乾隆通宝,因乾隆版本较多,此四枚分别为3个版本,有:宝云局,宝泉局,宝源局

This collection is Qianlong Tongbao, because qianlong version is more, these four pieces are 3 versions respectively, have: Baoyuan bureau, Baoquan bureau, Baoyuan bureau

【前两枚为宝云局】

[The first two are Bao Xiaoyun Bureau]

宝云局铸造的乾隆通宝,由于铸造时间长,乾隆在位60年,加之在不同的地方铸造,包括云南省局、临安府(今建水)局、东川府局、大理府局、广西府(今泸西)局、东川府新局、保山府局、曲靖府局顺宁府(今凤庆)局等,其间几经增停,版别很多,因此形成不同的版式,前期铸造的比较大,直径2.6厘米,中、后期开始减重,出现私铸,薄而小。

Bureau casting qianlong tongbao, because the casting time is long, qianlong, qianlong for 60 years, and in different places casting, including Yunnan bureau, linan fu (now water), Dongchuan prefecture, Dali fu, Guangxi (now luxi), dongchuan new bureau, Baoshan bureau, Qujing shun ning house (today), etc., during several stops, version a lot, so forming a different format, early casting is larger, 2.6 cm in diameter, middle, late began to lose weight, private casting, thin and small.

【第三枚宝泉局】

[The Third Baoquan Bureau]

此枚钱币沿用雍正满文钱式,为圆形方孔的铜币,其形状外法天内法地,取义精宏。钱面上下左右楷书直读“乾隆通宝”四字,字体挺拔俊秀,端正工整,钱背沿穿孔左右铸满文“宝泉”,宝泉局为清朝户部所设立的铸造钱币的工厂,下属东、西、南、北四作厂,全部位于东城界内,是中央直接管辖的铸钱场,铸造的钱币比一般的更为精致细腻。此枚钱币为中央官局以精铜铸造,铸工精致,包浆浑厚温润,字体端庄,笔画圆润工整,蕴含深刻的历史文化价值,

This coin uses Yongzheng Manchu money style, for a circular square hole copper coin, its shape outside the law inside the earth, take the meaning and macro.Money face up and down the regular script straight read "qianlong tong bao" four words, tall and straight handsome, neat, money back along the perforation around cast full "treasure", baoquan bureau for the qing dynasty set up by the casting coin factory, east, west, south, north four factory, all located in the east boundary, is the direct jurisdiction of the central casting money, casting coin is more delicate than general.This coin is the central official bureau cast with fine copper, delicate casting, thick and warm pulp, dignified font, round and neat strokes, contains profound historical and cultural value,

【第四枚为宝源局】

[The fourth piece is the Baoyuan Bureau]

钱面文字“乾隆通宝”以楷书书写,其字从上而下而右而左直读。钱背文字沿雍正满文钱式穿孔左边有“宝”字,穿孔右边铸有各局名。乾隆通宝连宝泉、宝源在内先后有29局开铸,多用黄铜与青铜,也引进国外洋铜浇制法。新疆地区新用方孔圆钱,开设伊犁、阿克苏、乌什、叶尔羌、喀什葛尔、库车等局,因用自产红铜鼓铸、故称为“新疆红钱”或“普尔钱”(“普尔”维语即钱的意思)。乾隆通宝只少数钱背文看见星号或汉字。乾隆通宝还有合面钱、吉语钱以及私铸劣质钱、鹅眼钱等,品类不下百种,存于世上的有雕母数种,至为珍贵。

The character "Qianlong Tongbao" is written in regular script, read from top to right to left.Qian back text along Yongzheng Manchu Qian perforation left has the word "treasure", the right side of the perforation cast with the name of each bureau.Qianlong Tongbao lian baoquan, Baoyuan, including 29 bureau of casting, mostly using brass and bronze, also introduced foreign copper pouring method.In Xinjiang, the new square hole round money, opened Yili, Aksu, Wushi, Yarqiang, Kashgar, Kuqa and other bureaus, because of the own red drum cast, it is called "Xinjiang red money" or "pur money" ("pur" language means money).Qianlong Tongbao only a few Qian back the asterisk or Chinese characters.Qianlong Tongbao also has the face money, auspicious language money and private cast inferior money, goose eye money, more than 100 kinds of categories, there are several kinds of carved mother stored in the world, it is precious.

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